Glossary

A-B

bank credit Financing mechanism that banks offer to businesses, organised into financial products according to the repayment period.

business advisory services Set of services aiming to provide support to a business in the process of creation and constitution, as well as in its ordinary operational proceedings and through its development, growth, continuous improvement and innovation processes.

business angel Individual or group of investors that provide capital for a start-up or emerging business. In addition to financial capital, they contribute their business or professional knowledge suitable for the development of the company in which they are investing.

business associativism Form of organisation and aggregation of companies by sector, territory, size or other criteria, with the aim to represent their interests before public institutions, in social dialogue and society as a whole.

business centre Facility specifically designed to receive business initiatives and projects, managed professionally and offering technical, technological and support services for the companies registered there.

business cluster Group of companies and supporting institutions around the same sector or sub-sector of activity, in a defined territory, that wish to share projects and activities related to the improvement of their competitiveness, research and innovation, the broadening of markets, promotion and the positioning of their products.

business cooperation Voluntary agreement among different companies of the same or different sectors that group their efforts and resources to achieve common goals.

business growth Process of development, improvement and expansion of a company's business, production or activity lines. This process of growth involves the incorporation of funding mechanisms and a review of the company's operation and organizational models.

business incubator Set of facilities with various services designed to facilitate the implementation of projects aimed at creating and developing companies, over a pre-established period of time and in exchange for payment, with certain conditions of use. There are specialised incubators depending on sector.

business one-stop (FUE) Physical or virtual space from where all the necessary steps can be taken to develop a company's economic activity, independently of the administration responsible. It is characterised by the multi-administration integration of services and unified processing; it allows multi-channel communication and promotes swift action and efficiency in the relationship between the company and the administration. The Open Administration of Catalonia (AOC) refers to it as single business window.

business plan Organised collection of the different aspects that condition and shape the creation of a business or company. It usually includes a presentation of the business and the main products or services it offers, its technical, technological and production requirements, its organisational model and its economic plan, among other aspects.

business social responsibility (BSR) or corporate social responsibility (CSR) Active and voluntary contribution by companies towards social, economic and environmental improvement, generally with the aim of improving their competitive situation, valuation and added value.

business support office (OAE) Specialised service point run by local councils that serves as the contact point between companies and local councils for any type of interaction or procedure. It offers information and advisory and support services for companies and entrepreneurs, in order to consolidate them within the territory.

C-D

capitalisation of unemployment benefit Process prior to the constitution of a business that can be undertaken by a person in a situation of unemployment and with the right to receive unemployment benefit; it enables them to obtain all the unemployment benefits to which they are entitled in a single payment, with the purpose of creating a business.

commercial company Form of organisation that aims to carry out business or company activities for the purpose of making a profit and sharing the earnings among its members.

continuous training Structured and modular training that provides the necessary body of knowledge to guarantee the continuous update of the knowledge and professional skills necessary for the running and management of the company and for productive employment, in the different areas of work and of the organisation.

cooperative Type of company formed by natural or legal persons that unite in a voluntary manner to fulfil common economic, social or cultural needs and aspirations, through a jointly owned and democratically managed company.

coworking System of working that enables the development of different business or professional activities in the same space (physical or virtual) that includes certain rules of coexistence that must be respected. It enables the participants of the space to exchange ideas and projects, as well as develop joint projects.

crowdfunding System of collective financing of entrepreneurial projects through contributions by different people, who generally make small monetary contributions in exchange for previously defined rewards or privileges.

crowdlending System of collective financing in the form of a loan in which the participants make contributions towards a business initiative in exchange for the return of the amount of the capital loaned and the payment of some interest.

E-F

economic activity estate (PAE) Space delimited within a municipality, according to the existing urban plan, dedicated to host and implement economic activities of diverse nature, equipped with the necessary infrastructures to guarantee their purpose.

Economic Development Agency of the AMB Department of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area (AMB) serving the metropolis of Barcelona that aims to address the area's overarching economic and employment needs. The institution's activities focus on promoting innovation, reindustrialisation, internationalisation and attracting investment, as well as on driving the job market and local emerging economies in the area's municipalities and supporting local entities in their economic development efforts.

entrepreneur Person that finds a business opportunity and decides to make it a reality, organising the resources that they have at their disposal. They normally stand out for their initiative, innovation, creativity, ability to take risks, tenacity and frustration tolerance.

entrepreneur service point (punt PAE) Service point promoted by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism, which is responsible for facilitating the creation of new companies. It offers information services, the processing of documentation to set up companies, advice, training and support for financing.

entrepreneurship training Structured training of the body of knowledge necessary to generate an idea capable of becoming a business project, to acquire the necessary skills to design and develop a technical and economic feasibility plan for the new company, and to implement it and begin the activity.

ethical and social financing System of financing that makes financial and economic profitability compatible with the achievement of social and environmental objectives.

export company Company that opts to produce goods and provide services to other locations beyond their national borders.

foreign direct investment (FDI) Capital investment by a natural or legal person in a foreign country, through the purchase of stocks and shares in an already established company or by creating a new one.

freelance work Professional activity carried out by a natural person of legal age on a regular basis, in their own name, with the aim of obtaining profit or benefit.

G-H

grant Financial assistance provided by the public administration to another entity, organisation or company to facilitate the achievement of a given milestone. The application, obtainment and subsequent justification of the grant are subject to a series of requirements and conditions.

guarantee Contract by which a third party (guarantor) assumes a commitment of solidarity to make a payment or respond with a number of assets in favour of the party designated as the debtor, in the event that the latter does not fulfil the obligations set out in the guarantee agreement.

I-J

import company Company that opts to acquire goods and services from other locations across the world, in order to put them at the service of the national market.

international promotion Set of services, actions and mechanisms that make it easier for companies to export or invest in other countries and, at the same time, to enhance their own territory and make it more attractive, as well as to increase the capacity and potential to attract investment or the installation of foreign companies.

internationalisation Process through which a company or organisation projects their goods or services to an international market, so that it generates different flows (commercial, financial and knowledge) between the country of origin and the foreign country.

job bank Resource, often promoted by public administrations, of intermediation between the offer and demand of jobs, which serves as a tool both for people looking for work and companies that are seeking workers.

K-L

legalisation of the business Procedures and processes that must be carried out before starting the business activity, in accordance with the applicable regulations according to the type of company or business to be set up and the specificities of the activity to be developed.

loan Medium- or long-term financing mechanism that serves to acquire goods or services and that establishes the destination of loaned capital, the amount and the terms of repayment.

local development Active local policies that generate wealth and reduce unemployment rates by strengthening the business competitiveness of a territory (in terms of the creation, acceleration, consolidation and growth of businesses) and improving the employability of the people that are part of it (offering training, advice on integration and promotion).

M-N

mentoring Methodology and practice aimed at developing people's potential, based on the transfer of knowledge and learning from experience, within a structured process in which a personal and trust-based relationship is established between a mentor who guides, stimulates, challenges and encourages another person according to their needs, in order to maximise their talent.

networking Construction of a wide network of contacts among companies, entrepreneurs and freelancers with the aim to reinforce the corporate image and generate new lines of communication and business, by establishing business relations, creating and developing business opportunities, sharing information and searching for potential clients.

O-P

patent Certificate that recognises the right to exclusively exploit the patented invention and that prevents others from manufacturing, selling or using it without the owner's consent. The patent may relate to a new process, device or product, or to the improvement or enhancement of an existing one.

participative loan Long-term financing mechanism that can be of private or bank origin, as well as to come from public funds, in which the money provided is considered a provision of capital. The amount of interest that needs to be paid, or a part of this interest, is variable and related to the evolution of the business.

public financing Set of economic resources that come from public bodies in the form of grants, guarantee funds, insolvency funds, participative credit and other short- or long-term forms of financing.

Q-R

Q certification Indicator of quality that distinguishes the level of excellency of an area of economic activity. It guarantees rigour and recognises the value of the services offered to the companies that the area includes or that wish to set up there.

regulated education Learning that is officially regulated by the educational system of the reference country that leads to official qualifications that are valid in the academic field. It includes pre-school, primary and compulsory secondary education, vocational training (intermediate and advanced) and university education (including official master's degrees and doctoral programmes).

research centre Organisation specialising in research, innovation and the development of new solutions and applications of technological and scientific knowledge in a sector or branch of study, frequently led by a university.

risk capital Financial instrument through which an entity provides initial capital to a business project and participates as a temporary and minority shareholding partner. Depending on the degree of maturity of the project or company, this can be referred to in a number of ways.

S-T

scientific and technological park Local environment with different spaces and characteristic infrastructure, facilities and services that hosts a group of organisations, institutions and companies dedicated to research, investigation and the generation of services and products of a technical, scientific or technological nature, and which facilitates their interconnection, development and market promotion.

social and cooperative economy Set of socio-economic activities and practices by private entities and companies that are formally organised and have autonomy over decisions and freedom of membership, created to fulfil the needs of their partners through the market, using a management strategy where people are given priority over capital.

social innovation Set of activities developed by companies, non-profit organisations or individuals, oriented towards research, design and the development and dissemination of new solutions to social challenges in our environment.

start-up Recently created business project in its early stages, called a "starting phase", with a great growth potential. In this phase, the company develops its product or service to generate income that allows it to consolidate and grow. It is a very innovative organisation with a great capacity for change, and is completely client-oriented.

subsidised training Training offer provided by companies to workers, which is officially recognised, and for which companies receive financial compensation, in order to offset the expense involved.

tariff Tax that is paid, especially on cargo, when goods cross a border with another country. Tariff barriers are instruments used by states to regulate international commerce and protect local production. The EU is a single trade area, therefore, there are no tariffs among member states, and a common tariff policy has been established for countries outside the EU.

trade fairs and exhibitions Set of events and business meetings, with a determined frequency (annual, biennial, occasional...), of a sectorial or thematic nature, which facilitate the exchange and mutual knowledge of actors, companies and organisations in the sector, as well as economic, technical, technological and market initiatives and opportunities, of public or private origin.

trade mission Joint trip of a sectorial or multi-sectorial group of companies, to a specific market or to several international markets, with an individual list of contacts for each of the participating companies. Its main objective is the organisation of interviews with potential buyers and the selection of possible representatives, suppliers, distributors or collaborators.

U-V

unique project Programme mainly promoted and subsidised by the public administration that aims to have a high impact on the economic structures of the territory by enhancing the employability of participants and the competitiveness of companies. It stands out for its transversality and can offer actions in terms of diagnosis, customised training, promotion of entrepreneurship and consolidation, or assistance in any phase of productive activity.

vocational training (FP) Set of training activities that qualify students to develop a trade, find a job and participate actively in social, cultural and economic life. Currently, vocational training is organised into Intermediate and Advanced Vocational Training and Educational Cycles (cicles formatius de grau mitjà, CFGM, and cicles formatius de grau superior, CFGS), which are also distributed among different professional groups.

X-Z

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